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Gobernanza de la calidad de vida y bienestar subjetivo
Governance of quality of life and well-being subjective
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Resumen: este trabajo se propuso establecer un modelo correlativo para discutir la importancia de otras variables en la investigación de la calidad de vida. Una vez que se especificaron las relaciones entre los factores derivados de la revisión de la literatura, se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con una muestra no probabilística de 245 estudiantes. Cuando se obtuvo la validez y confiabilidad del instrumento medido: satisfacción con la vida, capacidades esperadas, expectativas de oportunidad, relaciones de confianza, percepción de la justicia, evaluación del entorno, estándares de contexto y recursos percibidos, se probó un modelo estructural en el que se evaluó Disponibilidad de recursos correlacionados indirectamente con la satisfacción con la vida a través del contexto de estándares. Los resultados fueron comparados con los hallazgos reportados en el estado de conocimiento.
Palabras clave: calidad de vida, satisfacción con la vida, normas grupales, disponibilidad de recursos, capacidades percibidas.
Abstract –This work was proposed to establish a correlative model to discuss the importance of other variables in the investigation of the quality of life. Once the relationships between the factors derived from the literature review were specified, it conducted a cross sectional study with a non - probabilistic sample of 245 students. When the validity and reliability of the instrument measured was obtained: life satisfaction, expected capabilities, expectations of opportunity, trust relationships, perception of justice, assessment of the environment, standards of context and perceived resources, a structural model was tested in which the perceived availability of resources indirectly correlated to life satisfaction through standards context. The results were compared with findings reported in the state of knowledge.
Keywords–Quality of life, life satisfaction, group norms, availability of resources, perceived capabilities.
Resumo - Este trabalho foi proposto para estabelecer um modelo correlativo para discutir a importância de outras variáveis na investigação da qualidade de vida. Estabelecidas as relações entre os fatores derivados da revisão da literatura, realizou - se um estudo transversal com uma amostra não probabilística de 245 estudantes. Quando se obteve a validade e confiabilidade do instrumento medido: satisfação com a vida, capacidades esperadas, expectativas de oportunidade, relações de confiança, percepção de justiça, avaliação do ambiente, padrões de contexto e recursos percebidos, testou-se um modelo estrutural em que a percepção disponibilidade de recursos indiretamente correlacionados à satisfação com a vida através do contexto dos padrões. Os resultados foram comparados com os achados relatados no estado do conhecimento.
Palavras-chave - Qualidade de vida, satisfação de vida, normas de grupo, disponibilidade de recursos, capacidades percebidas.
The quality of life understood as satisfaction related to resources, values, norms, expectations, perceptions and capabilities is a central issue in the public health agenda for sustainable local development (García, 2013).
Some studies on quality of life provide significant gender differences regarding transportation, employment and recreation (Baldi & Garcia, 2010).Furthermore, when pondering as a perceptual system resources around the individual and in reference to the parent group, it is considered a style of personal well - being that is geared to social integration (Barranco, Delgado, Meli, & Quintana, 2010).
But quality of life is correlated with anxiety and depression in medical situations of uncertainty and deteriorating health (Machado, Anarte, & Ruiz, 2010). That is, the quality of life is the result of the perception of scarcity of resources rather than the hopes generated from personal abilities. Opportunities seem to boil down to a minimum and thus the responsibility of self-increases and an improvement in expectations is observed through the links between the members of a social, family or school group.
Grimaldo (2010) found eight alluding to the quality of life dimensions. This is the economic well - being, interpersonal relationship, family situation, neighborhood context, social capital and health. Therefore, the quality of life is a web of expectations that are based on a figurative nucleus to influence the decisions of resource allocation (Carreon & Garcia, 2013).
When the individual is undergoing one, health, family or interpersonal economic situation, often estimated that their quality of life has been substantially modified (Sadeghzadeh, 2012). Immediately aesthetic, emotional and rational expectations that drive actions that target the generation and update capabilities subject to the group to which it belongs or wants to belong (Derya, 2012) are activated. That is, the quality of life is a history of the formation of a group identity and sense of belonging anchored to freedom of choice, expectations of justice and collective mobilization.
The quality of life in their perceptual phase generates emotions of distrust of authorities arising in dissident citizen actions (Carreon & Garcia, 2013). Rather, the perception of quality of life, as to the notion of social justice, is linked to conventional styles of development that the individual has learned since childhood and now as an adult translates as reliability or confidence but realizing that the link is asymmetric with its authorities then mobilizes the resources needed for civil disobedience (Garcia, 2013).
Tariq (2012) notes that the quality of life, in its dimension of life satisfaction, requires a set of indicators to guide not only the perception of the subject, but also collective action. A low level of life satisfaction is sufficient to activate the process of social dissent, but a high level of life satisfaction does not create collaborative, supportive or empathetic links (Carreon & Garcia, 2013).
However, low levels of life satisfaction, which suggests minimum standards of quality of life, promote the formation of support networks. This is the case for the new lesbian-gay or environmentalists, who by forming self - help groups cause greater SWB who only receive social movements abundance of resources (Carreon et al., 2013).
As the quality of life is specific and limits to psychological factors, expectations of discontent, indignation and civil disobedience are increased, but also emerge social skills such as creativity and innovation of minority groups against ideological or pragmatic imposition of the majority (Abolfotouh et al., 2013).
In short, the quality of life in economic, political, social, health, educational, employment and technological terms is a multidimensional construct (Quinceno & Vinaccia, 2013).
Studies of quality of life and well-being subjective
Relations between opportunities, skills, responsibility, fairness, reliability and life satisfaction aimed at mobilization can be realized in a model (see Table 1).
It is around 17 variables which links economic dependence between social and personal factors, political, group influence life satisfaction. The HCT warns that capacities would have a significant impact on life satisfaction, since a high level of education is offset by a high satisfying lifestyle. Moreover, if the connection between capabilities and satisfaction of real or symbolic opportunities, then as indicated by the HDT human development is complemented.
However, the process involving freedom of choice, necessarily capabilities and life satisfaction, according to CRT, is subject to the availability of resources and their distribution among species. In the case of common resources there is a zero - sum tragedy in which the actors involved rather than cooperate and establish an administrative stewardship of resources, wantonly compete and suppress the possibility of growth of other species. That is why the availability of resources indirectly affects life satisfaction (Hypothesis 3) mode.
Although the availability of resources pacesetter in the organization of human groups, is the state in reference to citizenship, as warns the SFT, who encourages the spread of resources. When the relationship between civil society and authorities is asymmetric, then the quality of life fades, but when there are bonds of trust then emerges life satisfaction.
In another scenario, the link between citizenship and justice authorities raises expectations that undermine or ennoble responsibility. This is because, according to the DET, politics is concomitant with the economy. Higher levels of governance are observed in prosperous countries, while ungovernability underlying weak economies. That is why the expected justice directly affects the life satisfaction of citizens for their political system.
The process of confidence, skills and life satisfaction is raised by the SFT. The relationship between society and development - oriented State has in the formation of human capital its main link. SFT proposes that development, unlike the growth but high standards of life satisfaction why, capabilities are an essential factor in the link between political reliability and personal life satisfaction.
The indirect relationship between justice and satisfaction to be mediated by the capabilities supposed ecological development scenarios. The CRT notes that the connection between authorities and citizens defined by molar and molecular actions that affect individual satisfaction.
Molars acts contrary to the molecular actions involve significant links that contrasts the individual in crisis situations. Meanwhile, the little meaningful relationships are understood as molecular events from which it is not possible to build a collective memory, social dissent and civil disobedience.
Thus justice, considering a system of molar actions, influences life satisfaction while being regulated by the personal abilities.
However, the CRT suggests that the opportunities which affect relations between reliability, justice, capabilities and satisfaction. Thus, freedom of choice to be linked with the political reliability and individual capacities impact on life satisfaction. This is because the trust between citizens and politicians depends on options of choice in employment. If there are job opportunities, then political reliability increases and generates high skills affect states of satisfaction. Or, the opportunities are disseminated as justice factors affecting the generation of job skills, while it is possible to observe the growth of personal satisfaction of life.
However, freedom of choice involve decisions, demands and resources from which gestate opportunities. It is for this matter that the CRT maintains that the availability of resources, but above all, the dilemma of their distribution, impacts the development of communities or groups sharing scenarios and contexts.
The story of a community or group seems to be undermined by networks of cooperation and trust while resource availability permits. In a situation of scarcity dilemmas and thus the tragedies of common entities emerge. In this sense, the CRT said that opportunities are the result of a shared responsibility between the parties involved.
Thus, resource management indirectly affects satisfaction through opportunities, reliability, justice and abilities. In the first instance, the lack of resources would create a reduction in levels of public trust in the public administration, it would impact the choice options slowing consumption capacity. Once the purchasing power is compromised, citizen satisfaction levels are reduced to a minimum. In this vein, the shortage may also affect public perceptions of injustice, against the lack of government atingencia, choice capabilities are reduced to influence life satisfaction.
In contrast, when the availability of resources is insufficient but widely perceived by the public, choice opportunities appear to act in the public trust and thus in decision making not only seeking personal or group satisfaction, but social. This is also a process of justice before the distribution of resources via public services. In this scenario, life satisfaction precedes choice options to be perceived as abundant transferred the effect of social justice to life satisfaction.
Likewise, the relationship between environmental assessment (resources) and life satisfaction (needs obtained) understands the CRT as a direct and meaningful process. It is an asymmetrical relationship, as the shortage of resources with rising expectations raises a scenario that compromises the public confidence for their future rulers and capabilities of future civil society.
The CRT notes that in the case of social norms regarding the administration and therefore, the distribution of resources, its relationship with satisfaction in being direct and meaningful comprises a structural reductionism, or, interaction with social justice and capacities implies the emergence of a democratic system of citizen opening partnership against the State.
Axes and trajectories of dependency relationships between the factors in the state of knowledge related to quality of life and subjective well-being be adjusted to the empirical observations in a study location in central Mexico.
The dependency links that are specified in the model fit the observed data. That is, the perception of availability and commonality of resources impacts directly and indirectly on the life satisfaction of students. In the second case of indirect relationship, expectations of opportunity, trust, fairness and ability to reduce or increase the incidence of resources expected on life satisfaction, adjust their relations to specified data.
Although the literature review explains the relations of dependence between the factors related to the quality of life and subjective well-being, the specificity of the context implies another type of interrelation since, the actors involved appear to be distinguished from those reported in the state of knowledge
A cross - sectional study was conducted. A nonrandom selection of 245 students was conducted. The criterion of choice was having a paid, Internet service and have been enrolled in the school semester activity. They interviewed 120 women and 125 men (M = 20.13 years and SD = 2.36 years). Economic status to which the sample belongs was medium low with about $ 1,500 monthly household income (M = 950 USD and SD = 24.5 USD).
Education. The participants declared their belonging to public universities (M = 2.13 years of study and SD = 0.47 years of study). 67% of respondents had a scholarship or financial support (M = 100 USD and SD = 7.5 USD). Expenditure on tuition (300 USD semester), useful (250 USD semester), Internet (50 USD monthly) and transport (35 USD weekly) generate an estimated investment of $ 1,000 every six months (M = 870 USD and DE = 15.67 USD).
Employment. The 36% of the sample declared work before or after attending the school (M = 400 USD monthly and DE = $ 23.5 monthly). Of the respondents who work 78% said that their wages would rise substantially if complete its vocational training (M = $ 1,200 monthly expected and DE = $ 45.5 expected monthly). By contrast, 84% of respondents stated that their income would be lower if you only count with basic secondary education (M = 250 USD and SD = 14.6 USD).
Technology. The 57% paid monthly Internet access from a landline (M = 470 USD monthly and DE = $ 15.7 per month) while 93% have mobile phone service (M = 140 USD monthly and DE = $ 10.2 monthly). Facebook (46%), Twitter (27%) and Google+ (14%) are the most used social networks for school purposes or job search.
A questionnaire quality of life from the educational, technological and labor dimensions depending on the factors of resource availability, social reliability, social justice, opportunities for choice, selection skills and perceptions of satisfaction (see Table 2) was built.
The application of the surveys were conducted at the premises of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, after processing to the authorities of the institution. When solving the questionnaire, respondents were instructed to write any questions they may have regarding the survey. Once the information was collected was captured in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 25.0), to estimate the parameters in multivariate analysis structural moments (AMOS, version 6.0).
Analysis. An analysis of normal considering the kurtosis parameter assuming reliability and internal consistency or Cronbach's alpha was performed. Then we proceeded to estimate the construct validity prior sphericity and suitability of the instrument to the study sample. Next, bivariate correlations or multivariate covariance were estimated to anticipate causal relationships in structural models, adjustment and waste.
Normality. Kurtosis parameter was used to determine the proximity of the responses to the mean and standard deviation. Close to the unit values are assumed as evidence of normal distribution.
Reliability. The internal consistency of the reagents with respect to the scale was weighted Cronbach 's alpha statistic. The above 0.60 and less than 0.90 test values were symmetrical relationships between reactants and psychological traits that measure sought.
Validity. Alignment with the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin parameter in which values above 6.00 a requirement for the construct validity were considered to be praised. Sphericity with Bartlett's test was also estimated, the Chi-square and close to the unit level less than 0.050 significance value is taken as a second request for exploratory factor analysis of principal components with varimax rotation. The correlations between the item and the factor above 0.300 were assumed as indicators of a construct. As for the percentages of explained variance greater than 20% they were estimated as fit test model specifications regarding observation data.
Correlation. Pearson's r parameter was used to calculate the negative or positive relationships between the factors in the construct validity. Those close to zero and unit values were admitted as spurious and collinear relationships. Instead, the values between the extremes were considered as probable associations dependence.
Covariance. Phi estimate was used to determine the association between a factor and another in reference to other factors. As the correlation values identified as spurious, and dependence relationships collinear.
Structure. Phi parameters were used to estimate covariance, statistical regression gamma for exogenous mediators and beta parameters for the regression of mediator’s factors endogenous factors. Statistical delta, epsilon and sigma were used to calculate the measurement errors of exogenous and endogenous indicators as well as disturbance of endogenous factors. The criterion for interpreting the values close to zero and unity was also assessed for the parameters in question.
Adjustment. The contrast of the model was carried out from estimating the goodness of fit index (GFI, for its acronym in English). Close to the unit values were judged show of acceptance of null hypothesis.
Residual. The contrast model also performed from the calculation of mean square error approximation (RMSEA, for its acronym in English). The near zero values were considered as evidence of fit of the model specified with respect to the data.
Eight factors [KMO = 6.25 were established; X 2 = 14.25 (23 gl); p = 0.000] (see Table 3) concerning life satisfaction (items SV1, SV2, SV3 and 45% of the total variance explained), expected capacity (EC1, EC2, EC3 and 37% of the total variance explained) trust relationships (RC1, RC2, RC3 and 33% of the explained variance), perception of justice (PJ1, PJ2, PJ3 and 31% of the explained variance), expectations of opportunity (EO1, EO2, EO3 and 27% of the variance explained), assessments of the environment (VE1, VE2, VE3 and 25% of the explained variance) standards context (NC1, NC2, NC3 and 23% of the explained variance) and perceived resources (RP1, RP2, RP3 and 21 % of the explained variance).
In the case of the descriptive results a tendency to positive choices for answers to items of the factors of life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context and perceived resources and a negative prevalence is observed factors perception of justice, opportunity and ratings expectations of the environment.
With regard to life satisfaction, the item SV3 (M = 2.47, SD = 0.49; C = 2.04) won the closest value to the "very satisfactory" option while the item SV2 ( M = 2.01, SD = 0.27; C = 2.08) approached the "unsatisfactory" option. That is, the survey sample appears to guide their life satisfaction towards a close to full satisfaction educational, technological and labor scenario.
For the expected capacity, the item CE3 (M = 2.71, SD = 0.41; C = 2.01) was around the "very preferable". In contrast, the item EC1 (M = 2.47, SD = 0.37; C = 2.01) approached the "little better" option. In this sense, the survey sample seems to direct their responses to a nearby option to the efficient perception of their abilities.
Meanwhile, in relationships of trust, the item RC2 (M = 2.94, SD = 0.48; C = 2.05), unlike the item RC3 (M = 2.04, SD = 0.93 C = 2.01) approached the "very reliable" option. This suggests that confidence is perceived as a key element of relations between the surveyed sample.
As for the perception of justice, the item PJ3 (M = 1.27, SD = 0.31; C = 2.05) compared to item PJ2 (M = 1.59, SD = 0.15; C = 2 01) to be hanging around the "highly undesirable" alternative is a biased appreciation of justice. This is because the injustice that the sample surveyed perceived their authorities seems to be a central element in their life satisfaction.
In the case of the expectations of opportunity, the item EO3 (M = 1.14, SD = 0.31; C = 2.05) about the item EO2 (M = 1.38, SD = 0.59; C = 2.01) reflects a trend towards "very little optional" option, which suggests that the opportunities are valued as almost nil by the survey sample.
It is the same case of valuations of the environment, as the item VE3 (M = 1.03, SD = 0.26; C = 2.03) compared to item VE1 (M = 1.46, SD = 0.49 C = 2,01) shows an inclination to "very efficient" option, which is the result of considering public services as a system of unequal distribution among the survey sample.
As standards context item NC2 (M = 2.70, SD = 0.59; C = 2.01) in contrast to the item NC3 (M = 2.35, SD = 0.63; C = 2.07) approached the "very significant" option. This means that the conventions that guide the actions of the individual to be evaluated positively prove the influence of the system on an indicator of the quality of life in the survey sample.
Finally, the factor of perceived resources, RP3 item (M = 2.75, SD = 0.21; C = 2.03) compared with the item RP2 (M = 2.14, SD = 0, 56; C = 2.08) reveals a "very cooperative" tendency on the part of the survey sample. This means that the distribution of resources probably influences the perception of scarcity and hence the need to share.
The reliability of the factors 1 to 8 (alphas respective 0.72; 0.74; 0.79; 0.74; 0.78; 0.75; 0.71 and 0.75) expresses a regular consistency between items, since the overall reliability of the instrument was 0.69.
The association between factors (see Table 4) shows that life satisfaction and expectations of opportunity (r = 0.582), expected capabilities and perceived resources (r = 0.719), relationships of trust and perceived resources (r = 0.625), perception of justice and expectations of opportunity (0.613), expectations of opportunity and perceived resources (0.509), assessment of the environment and standards of context (0.495) and standards of context and perceived resources (r = 0.321) assume that the specification of relationships between factors could be estimated by a model, although it was expected that would have negative relationships between perceptions of justice, expectations of opportunity and ratings of the environment, since their means, deviations and kurtosis warned a negative prevalence regarding the positive trend of the other factors.
The analysis of covariance (see Table 6) as well as the correlations showed positive links between life satisfaction and ratings of the environment (Φ = 0.610), expected capabilities and expectations of opportunity (Φ = 0.692), relationships of trust and perceived resources (Φ = 0.729), perception of justice and perceived resources (Φ = 0.624), expectations of timeliness and standards context (Φ = 0.714), assessments of the environment and perceived resources (Φ = 0.624) and standards context and resources perceived (Φ = 0.735).
Covariances brandished warn that the specified relationships seem to establish a system of quality of life centered on life satisfaction, expected capabilities, relationships of trust, norms of context and resources collected more than perceptions of justice, expectations of opportunity and ratings of the environment.
The model of structural relationships shows that the factor influencing the perception of resources on life satisfaction is the standard of context (γ = 0.52), followed by environmental assessment factor (γ = 0.37), expected capacities (β = 0.31), relations of trust (β = 0.28) and perceived justice (β = 0.24). That is, the full satisfaction of actions relating to the academy, technology and employment is influenced by the availability of resources received through ingrained behaviors of students. This finding exalts an assumption of the theory of common resources according to which the customs of groups internalize resources as elements of community and identity (García, Carreon & Hernandez, 2014). This is because the conservation of resources due to customs rooted in the sense of belonging is essential for personal, group or community satisfaction.
The contrast of the dependency relationships [X 2 = 12,35 (12 gl); p = 0.000; GFI = 0.975; RMR = 0,000] evidence acceptance of the null hypothesis.
Referring to the work of Machado et al., (2010) in which the dependency relationship between anxiety and low perceived quality of life, this study found that the perceived availability of resources indirectly correlates of life satisfaction through standards demonstrated context.
The quality of life has been considered two overriding dimensions: subjective and physical, involved the relationship between availability of resources and basic psychological processes that links groups would not affect the perception of satisfaction.
Although in this study the relationship of trust and perception of justice are variables related to the dynamics of groups to which the individual belongs, its influence is less than the value of resources (public education, technology and employment) and personal capacities (freedom of choice, skills and knowledge), although the rules of context (ingrained behaviors) increase the relationship between available resources and life satisfaction. However, it is essential to include personal pathologies in the model of dependency relationships to contrast their influence on life satisfaction.
Quality of life, in its dimension of satisfaction of public education services, Internet and employment, in the sample of young people surveyed.
The relationship indirect between perceived resources and the satisfaction of life suggests that there are group and personal factors that regulate the impact of a shortage perceived abundance of resources, although the state of knowledge cautions that are variables which they are associated with perceptions of satisfaction full of life.
The satisfaction of life to interact with perceived resources, assessments of the environment, standards of context, perception of justice, trust relationships, opportunities and expected capabilities can explain from frames you rich, but it must include theory order and constructs economic or economic and polítics, since their exclusion reduces the quality of life to the perception of respondents.
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